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Filter Specialists, Inc. can guarantee compliance
with NDE requirements and ASME Code. Its
the policy of FSI to provide safe, reliable products
which meet our customers needs as well
as all applicable FSI, industry and regulatory
requirements. If you have requirements that
extend beyond Code, contact us and we will
make every effort to meet your needs.
Migration of foreign material which enters the fluid
stream from system components that wear from close
tolerances, vibration or shock.
An arbitrary term used to describe or define a degree of
filtration. There are various methods used in the filtration
industry to determine absolute ratings, which are not
necessarily interchangeable. Generally, absolute means
100% removal of solids (glass beads) above a specified
micron rating on a single pass. See nominal.
To take up by cohesive, chemical or molecular action.
A filter medium that is similar to a sponge, drawing fluid
and retaining it within its structure. In this sense it can act
as a filter to remove (adsorb) and retain fluid.
The quality, state or degree of being acidic. In lubricating
oils, acidity denotes the presence of acid-type constituents
whose concentration is usually defined in terms of a
neutralization number. The constituents vary in nature
and may or may not markedly influence the behavior of
the fluid.
A supplementary material combined with a base material
to provide special properties.
The attraction and/or the retention of particles by molecular
attraction or electrostatic forces present between the
particles and a filter medium. Also, the attraction of
gasses, liquids or solids to surface areas of textile fibers,
yarns, fabrics, or any similar type of material.
Any material which adsorbs: i.e., the solid which attracts
and holds on its surface the gas, vapor or liquid. Also, a
filter medium primarily intended to hold its soluble
and insoluble contaminates on its surface by molecular
adhesion through no chemical change.
A group of two or more particles combined, joined or
clustered, by any means.

A relatively stable assembly of dry particles formed under
the influence of physical forces.
Surrounding. For example, the ambient operating
temperature of a vessel is temperature that is essentially
the same as that surrounding the vessel.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Atmospheric pressure
The force exerted on a unit area by the weight of the
Back pressure
In filter use, resistance offered by the filter, usually
measured in PSI.
To clean a filter element by reversing the direction of
flow through it.
Basket strainer
A vessel for the removal of coarse bulk solids from liquid,
air or gas. The element is usually a steel perforated basket,
or a mesh lined basket.
Beta () Ratio
The Beta () Ratio is a rating system introduced with the
object of giving both filter manufacturer and user an
accurate representative comparison amongst filter media.
Also, an indication of how a filter performs throughout
the life of the filter. The Beta Ratio is an average filtration
rating (single pass and multi-pass).
A valve which diverts part of the fluid from the main
flow of the system.
A synthetic rubber gasket material, used for vessel
closures, flanges and filter elements.
An outward structural failure of the filter element caused
by excessive differential pressure.
A condition that occurs when:
a) a bag or cartridge is not seated or sealed properly in the
filter housing; or
b) the filter media is violated and permits unfiltered fluid
to pass through.
Solids deposited on the filter medium during filtration
in sufficient thickness to be removed in sheets of sizeable
pieces. In many cases, cake may provide its own filter
media by adding to the surface of the media.
The volume of product which a vessel will accommodate,
expressed in gallons or similar units. Also, an amount
which will filter at a given efficiency and flow rate,
expressed in gallons per minute or similar units.
A filter for the clarification of process liquids containing
small amounts of solids. Made of a porous medium,
it is used in a vessel, which performs the actual
filtration process.
Center-rod/ post
The component of a vessel used for mounting the cartridge
in the vessel, usually made of a round bar material. A center
pipe can also be used for the same purpose, but is made
instead with perforated effect and directs flow through
the cartridge.
One one-hundredth of a poise. A poise is the unit
of viscosity expressed as one dyne per second per
square centimeter.
One one-hundredth of a stoke. A stoke is equal to the
viscosity in poises times the density of the fluid in grams
per cubic centimeter.
Clear water pressure drop
Differential pressure across the filter as measured using
clean water at a particular flow rate.
That which produces agglomeration of suspended solids.
The action of uniting of small droplets of one liquid
preparatory to its being separated from another liquid.
Any undesirable particle or impurity in a stream.
An inner material used for the center of an element as
support, which may also be called a center tube when
used with string-wound filters.
The conversion of metals into oxides, hydrated oxides,
carbonates, or other compounds due to the action of air,
water or both. Salts and sulphur are also important
sources of corrosion. Removal of solids and water reduces
the effect or speed of corrosion in many cases, and in
other cases, corrosion inhibitors are used to reduce the
effect of corrosion.
The loss of desirable physical properties by a textile
material as a result of some process or physical/chemical
process. Also, the wearing down or reduction in the
efficiency of a media.
Delta P (P)
A symbol (P) designating pressure drop. The difference in
pressure between two points, generally measured at the
inlet and outlet point of a filter, separator/filter, etc.
Normally measured in pounds per square inch (psi),
inches of mercury (in. Hg.), or inches of water (in. H20).
Also known as pressure drop.
The weight per unit volume of a substance
(specific weight).
A filter medium which primarily retains contaminants
with the tortuous passages within the thickness of the
element wall.
Depth-type filtration
Filtration that is accomplished by flowing a fluid through
a mass filter media, with a much longer and random path
through the filter. The density of the structure can be
density graded, which is of particular advantage where
the particular sizes of the contaminant are widely
distributed. Certain types of solids, or combinations of
solids, do not work well with surface filtration, and depth
filtration is found to be more suitable.
A flow condition where certain liquids will show
an increase in viscosity as the rate of shear or flow
is increased.
The flow rate through a filter.
Effective area
The area of a medium that is exposed to the flow, and is
usable for its intended purpose: coalescing, filtering or
separating. This is the opposite of blind spots or dead area.
Effective open area
Area of the filtering medium through which the fluid
may flow.
The degree to which an element will perform in removing
solids and/or liquids, usually expressed as output divided
by input.
The medium used in a vessel to perform the function
of filtration or separation. Also called the cartridge or
filter. The porous device which performs the actual
process of filtration.
A finely divided suspension of an oil in water or vice
versa. Also, a dispersion of finely held particles in a
stream which do not necessarily dissolve in each other,
but are held in suspension.
Mist, fog or droplets of a liquid which are usually
considered to be a contaminate when encountered in
the filtration industry.
Liquid to be processed containing one or more liquid
phases, such as an emulsion, and/or suspended solids,
and/or insoluble solids.
A nonwoven sheet of fibers, made by a combination of
mechanical and chemical actions, including pressure,
moisture and heat.
A flexible material with two relatively small dimensions
and one long dimension.
Fiber migration
Undesirable movement of filter material from the media
into the feed stream.
A term generally applied to a device used to remove
solid contaminants from a liquid or gas, or to separate
one liquid from another liquid or gas. A filter, as
referred to in the filtration industry, is a device which
removes contaminants .
Filtration efficiency
Expressed as a percent of contaminant introduced to the
system. It is the ability of a filter to remove specified contaminants
at a given contaminant concentration under
specified test conditions.
Filter element life
The span of operation from clean unit to a predetermined
pressure drop build up, usually measured in
elapsed time.
Filter medium
The porous material mounted on a plate or frame which
separates the solids from the liquids in filtering. Also
referred to as filter cloth, filter plate or septum. The
material that performs the actual process of filtration.
Filtered fluid which flows out of a filter.
Filtration rating
The diameter of the largest hard spherical particle that
will pass through a filter under specified test conditions.
This is an indication of the largest opening in the
filter medium.
Flow characteristics
The nature of fluid movement as being either turbulent,
laminar, constant or of a variable rate, to various degrees.
Flow rate
The rate at which a product is passed through a vessel or
system, generally expressed as gallons per minute, cubic
feet per minute, per hour, per day, etc.
A liquid or gas which can be filtered by passing through
a filter.
Gage pressure
All pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, as read on
a pressure gage.
A semi-solid that is susceptible to pressure deformation.
Gels have the habit of sticking to other surfaces.
Glazed finish
A finishing process that produces a smooth, highly
polished surface using extreme temperature. Eliminates
filter fiber migration.
Gradient density
A media of different densities, with one media packed
around the center tube and a media of less density
around the outside. Both medias are tapered at opposite
ends, which allows high flow through the less dense
media, and tighter filtration through the dense media.
A container for a filter element(s). Also known as a vessel.
The study of fluids at rest or in motion.
Having a strong affinity for or the ability to absorb water.
Lacking affinity for or the ability to absorb water.
Hydrostatic test
A test conducted with either air, water or other fluids at
a given value over design pressure, to prove the structural
integrity of a pressure vessel.
Incapable of being mixed; insoluble; the opposite
of miscible.
The process of treating a coarse filter medium with resins.
Any undesirable material in the fluid. See contaminant.
Initial pressure drop
A loss in pressure between the inlet and the outlet connections
upon the start of flow through a vessel using
new elements.
When inlet and outlet connections are positioned at the
same height on the opposite sides of a vessel so that an
imaginary straight line can be drawn connecting one to
the other.
Incapable of being dissolved in a fluid; the opposite
of soluble.
The structural support yarn or twine in wound elements,
usually wound in a diamond pattern.
Maximum operating pressure
The highest pressure allowed in a system.
Media/ Medium
A porous or slotted mass in a filter element that separates
solids from a fluid by a difference in the size of openings,
and also through direct containment. A material of controlled
pore size or mass through which a product is passed
in order to remove foreign particles held in suspension, or
to repel droplets of coalesced water; or a material withour
controlled pore size, such as glass fiber mats, which
contribute to filtreation, coalescenece, or separation of
two immiscible liquids.
Media migration/ Migration
The carry-over of fibers from the filter, separator
elements or other filter, into the effluent. The
contaminant or media released to pass downstream
from the filter element.
In the filtration industry, the term is used to describe
the media through which the liquid stream is to be
passed or exchanged. Membranes are usually associated
with ion exchanged media such as dialysis, osmosis,
diffusion, etc., although filter paper itself could be
classified as a membrane.
A short unit of length in the metric system, equal to onemillionth
of a meter, 10-4 centimeter, 10-3 millimeter, or
0.000039 of an inch. A micron is used as a criterion to
evaluate the performance or efficiency of a filter media,
or to describe the condition of either the influent or
effluent. Usually stated in terms of being either absolute
or nominal.
A filter element which has no separate housing of its
own, but whose housing is incorporated into the
equipment it services. It may also incorporate a suitable
enclosure for the filter cavity.
Monofilament mesh
A woven fabric with evenly-spaced holes. Each thread is
a single filament. The mesh combines excellent strength
with little or no fiber migration.
Multifilament mesh
A type or woven fabric, where each thread consists of
many smaller diameter threads twisted together.
A liquid which does not change in viscosity when faced
with a change in rate of shear, agitation or flow rate.
Nominal rating
An arbitrary value determined by the filter manufacturer
and expressed in terms of percentage retention by weight
of a specified contaminant (usually glass beads) of a
given size.
National Pipe Thread standard.
Open area ratio
The ratio of pore area of a filter medium, expressed as
a percent of total area.
Operating pressure
The normal pressure at which a system operates.
Particle count
The practice of counting particles of solid matter in groups
based on relative size. Frequently used in engineering, a filter
to a specific task, or to evaluate the performance of a
filter under specific operating conditions.
Particle size distribution
A tabulation resulting from a particle count of solids
grouped by specified micron sizes to determine the
condition of either the influent or effluent stream.
The value indicating the acidity or alkalinity of a material.
It is the negative logarithm of the effective hydrogen ion
concentration. A pH of 7.0 is neutral, less than 7.0 is
acidic, and greater than 7.0 is considered a base.
A filter element whose medium consists of a series of
uniform folds and has the geometric shape of a cylinder,
cone, disc, plate, etc.
The condition of a filter when it has collected its
full capacity of contaminants and will not pass any
more fluid.
The property of a solid which contains many minute
channels or open spaces. The fraction is a percentage of
the total volume occupied by these channels or spaces.
Also describes a filter media which may have larger pores
than other media.
A filter for removing gross contaminate before the product
stream enters the separator.
The force exerted per unit area by a fluid, typically
measured in pounds per square inch (psi).
Pressure, absolute
Gage pressure plus 14.7 psi.
Pressure, atmospheric
The force exerted by the atmosphere at sea level, which
is equivalent to 14.7 psi.
Pressure drop
The difference in pressure between two points, generally
at the inlet and outlet of a filter or a separator/filter.
Measured in pounds per square inch gage, or inches
of mercury. See delta P.
Pounds per square inch.
Pounds per square inch absolute.
Pound per square inch differential.
Pounds per square inch gage.
The Society of Automotive Engineers.
SAE number
A classification of lubricating oils for either crankcases or
transmissions, in terms of viscosity, as standardized by the
Society of Automotive Engineers.
Saybold Seconds Universal (SSU)
Units of viscosity as measured by observing the time in
seconds required for 60 ml. of a fluid to drain through a
tubular orifice 0.483 inches long by 0.0695 inches in
diameter at stated conditions of temperature and pressure.
Standard cubic feet per day.
Standard cubic feet per hour.
Standard cubic feet per minute.
The action of separating solids or liquids from fluids.
May be accomplished by impingement, filtration or
by coalescing.
A vessel which removes solids and entrained liquids from
another liquid or gas, using some combination of a baffle
and/or coalescer, filter or separator element. A vessel may
be single stage, two stage, or single or two stage with prefilter
section for gross solids removal. The usual application
is the removal of water from gas or another immiscible
liquid. General reference to term applies the equipment
capable of both separation and filtration to specific
degrees of efficiencies.
Service life
The length of time an element operates before reaching
the maximum allowable pressure drop.
The outer wall of a vessel, usually referred to as the body.
Singed finish
The process of removing fibers from a cartridge or fabric
by passing over a flame or other heat source. The process
creates a smooth finish that inhibits fiber migration.
Media, usually metallic, that is processed to cause
diffusion bonds at all contacting points, retaining
openings for the passage of filtrate.
Skid mounted
When one or more vessels with pumps and motors are
mounted on a portable platform.
Dirt, carbon, water and chemical compounds found
in oils.
A mass or matter contained in a stream which is
considered undesirable and should be removed.
A single phase combination of liquid and non-liquid
substances, or two or more liquids.
Specific gravity
The ratio of a substances weight to that of some standard
substance (water for liquids and solids, air or hydrogen
for gases). This is by definition a unitless value.
Surface area
The total area of an element that is exposed to an
approaching flow.
Solids or liquids that are held in other liquids.
Suspended solids
Non-settled particles in a fluid.
Tensile strength
The maximum stress a material that is subjected to a
stretching load can withstand, without tearing.
A liquid which shows a marked reduction in viscosity as
the rate of shear, agitation or flow rate is increased.
The ratio of the average effective flow path length to the
minimum theoretical flow path length (thickness) of a
filter medium.
A cloudy or hazy appearance in a naturally clear liquid,
caused by the suspension of colloidal liquid droplets or
fine solids.
The number of times the contents of the system pass
through a filter per unit of time.
A type of membrane used to remove very fine suspended
submicronic particles as well as some dissolved solids.
The release downstream of trapped contaminant, due to a
change in flow rate, mechanical shock and/or vibration, or
as excessive pressure builds up, or due to a media failure.
A reference to a pressure that measures below
atmospheric pressure.
A container in which the filtration process occurs,
through a filter media such as cartridges or bags that are
installed inside.
The degree of fluidity; also, the property of a fluids
molecular structure by virtue of which they resist flow; the
internal flow resistance of a fluid; or, the resistance of flow
exhibited by a liquid resulting from the combined effects
of cohesion and adhesion. The units of measurement are
the poise and the stoke. A liquid has the viscosity of one
poise if a force of one dyne per square centimeter causes
two parallel liquid surfaces one square centimeter in area
and one centimeter apart to move past each other at a rate
of one centimeter per second. There are a great many
crude and empirical methods for measuring viscosity,
which generally involve measurements for the time of flow
or movement of a ball, ring or other object in a specially
shaped or sized apparatus.
A filter medium comprised of two or more layers of
helical wraps of a continuous strand or filament in a
predetermined pattern.
A filter medium made from strands of fiber, thread or
wire, interlaced into a cloth through the action of a loom.

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