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Reverse osmosis (RO) Technology

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Reverse osmosis (RO), with its exceptional purifying efficiency, is a very cost-effective technology for the removal of the majority of impurities. RO membranes are typically thin film polyamide and are stable over a wide pH range.

RO membranes are used to remove

  • Water contaminants that are less than 1 nm diameter
  • Typically over 90% of ionic contamination, most organic contamination and nearly all particlate contamination

How reverse osmosis removes contaminants


During reverse osmosis, feedwater is pumped past the input side of a RO membrane under pressure (typically 4–15 bar, 60–220 psi) in cross-flow fashion. Typically 15-30% of feedwater passes through the membrane as permeate and the rest exits the membrane as a concentrate that containsmost of the salts, organics, and essentially all particulates.

Advantages and Restrictions

Advantages:

  • Effective removal of contaminants such as colloids, pyrogens etc
  • Minimal maintenance and easy to monitor

Restrictions:

  • Gases are not removed
  • Pre-treatment is required to avoid contaminants damaging membrane
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