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CODE REQUIREMENTS
Filter Specialists, Inc. can guarantee compliance
with NDE requirements and ASME Code. It’s
the policy of FSI to provide safe, reliable products
which meet our customers’ needs as well
as all applicable FSI, industry and regulatory
requirements. If you have requirements that
extend beyond Code, contact us and we will
make every effort to meet your needs.
Abrasion
Migration of foreign material which enters the fluid
stream from system components that wear from close
tolerances, vibration or shock.
Absolute
An arbitrary term used to describe or define a degree of
filtration. There are various methods used in the filtration
industry to determine absolute ratings, which are not
necessarily interchangeable. Generally, absolute means
100% removal of solids (glass beads) above a specified
micron rating on a single pass. See nominal.
  
Absorb
To take up by cohesive, chemical or molecular action.
Absorbent
A filter medium that is similar to a sponge, drawing fluid
and retaining it within its structure. In this sense it can act
as a filter to remove (adsorb) and retain fluid.
Acidity
The quality, state or degree of being acidic. In lubricating
oils, acidity denotes the presence of acid-type constituents
whose concentration is usually defined in terms of a
neutralization number. The constituents vary in nature
and may or may not markedly influence the behavior of
the fluid.
 
Additive
A supplementary material combined with a base material
to provide special properties.
Adsorption
The attraction and/or the retention of particles by molecular
attraction or electrostatic forces present between the
particles and a filter medium. Also, the attraction of
gasses, liquids or solids to surface areas of textile fibers,
yarns, fabrics, or any similar type of material.
Adsorbent
Any material which adsorbs: i.e., the solid which attracts
and holds on its surface the gas, vapor or liquid. Also, a
filter medium primarily intended to hold its soluble
and insoluble contaminates on its surface by molecular
adhesion – through no chemical change.
Agglomerate
A group of two or more particles combined, joined or
clustered, by any means.

Aggregate
A relatively stable assembly of dry particles formed under
the influence of physical forces.
Ambient
Surrounding. For example, the ambient operating
temperature of a vessel is temperature that is essentially
the same as that surrounding the vessel.
ASME
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Atmospheric pressure
The force exerted on a unit area by the weight of the
atmosphere.
Back pressure
In filter use, resistance offered by the filter, usually
measured in PSI.
Backwash
To clean a filter element by reversing the direction of
flow through it.
     
Basket strainer
A vessel for the removal of coarse bulk solids from liquid,
air or gas. The element is usually a steel perforated basket,
or a mesh lined basket.
Beta (ß) Ratio
The Beta (ß) Ratio is a rating system introduced with the
object of giving both filter manufacturer and user an
accurate representative comparison amongst filter media.
Also, an indication of how a filter performs throughout
the life of the filter. The Beta Ratio is an average filtration
rating (single pass and multi-pass).
Bleeder
A valve which diverts part of the fluid from the main
flow of the system.
BUNA-N
A synthetic rubber gasket material, used for vessel
closures, flanges and filter elements.
Burst
An outward structural failure of the filter element caused
by excessive differential pressure.
By-pass
A condition that occurs when:
a) a bag or cartridge is not seated or sealed properly in the
filter housing; or
b) the filter media is violated and permits unfiltered fluid
to pass through.
Cake
Solids deposited on the filter medium during filtration
in sufficient thickness to be removed in sheets of sizeable
pieces. In many cases, cake may provide its own filter
media by adding to the surface of the media.
Capacity
The volume of product which a vessel will accommodate,
expressed in gallons or similar units. Also, an amount
which will filter at a given efficiency and flow rate,
expressed in gallons per minute or similar units.
 
 
Cartridge
A filter for the clarification of process liquids containing
small amounts of solids. Made of a porous medium,
it is used in a vessel, which performs the actual
filtration process.
Center-rod/ post
The component of a vessel used for mounting the cartridge
in the vessel, usually made of a round bar material. A center
pipe can also be used for the same purpose, but is made
instead with perforated effect and directs flow through
the cartridge.
Centipoise
One one-hundredth of a poise. A poise is the unit
of viscosity expressed as one dyne per second per
square centimeter.
Centistoke
One one-hundredth of a stoke. A stoke is equal to the
viscosity in poises times the density of the fluid in grams
per cubic centimeter.
Clear water pressure drop
Differential pressure across the filter as measured using
clean water at a particular flow rate.
Coagulant
That which produces agglomeration of suspended solids.
Coalescing
The action of uniting of small droplets of one liquid
preparatory to its being separated from another liquid.
Contaminant
Any undesirable particle or impurity in a stream.
Core
An inner material used for the center of an element as
support, which may also be called a center tube when
used with string-wound filters.
 
Corrosion
The conversion of metals into oxides, hydrated oxides,
carbonates, or other compounds due to the action of air,
water or both. Salts and sulphur are also important
sources of corrosion. Removal of solids and water reduces
the effect or speed of corrosion in many cases, and in
other cases, corrosion inhibitors are used to reduce the
effect of corrosion.
Degradation
The loss of desirable physical properties by a textile
material as a result of some process or physical/chemical
process. Also, the wearing down or reduction in the
efficiency of a media.
Delta P (P)
A symbol (P) designating pressure drop. The difference in
pressure between two points, generally measured at the
inlet and outlet point of a filter, separator/filter, etc.
Normally measured in pounds per square inch (psi),
inches of mercury (in. Hg.), or inches of water (in. H20).
Also known as pressure drop.
Density
The weight per unit volume of a substance
(specific weight).
Depth
A filter medium which primarily retains contaminants
with the tortuous passages within the thickness of the
element wall.
Depth-type filtration
Filtration that is accomplished by flowing a fluid through
a mass filter media, with a much longer and random path
through the filter. The density of the structure can be
density graded, which is of particular advantage where
the particular sizes of the contaminant are widely
distributed. Certain types of solids, or combinations of
solids, do not work well with surface filtration, and depth
filtration is found to be more suitable.
Dilatant
A flow condition where certain liquids will show
an increase in viscosity as the rate of shear or flow
is increased.
 
Discharge
The flow rate through a filter.
Effective area
The area of a medium that is exposed to the flow, and is
usable for its intended purpose: coalescing, filtering or
separating. This is the opposite of blind spots or dead area.
Effective open area
Area of the filtering medium through which the fluid
may flow.
Efficiency
The degree to which an element will perform in removing
solids and/or liquids, usually expressed as output divided
by input.
Element
The medium used in a vessel to perform the function
of filtration or separation. Also called the cartridge or
filter. The porous device which performs the actual
process of filtration.
Emulsion
A finely divided suspension of an oil in water or vice
versa. Also, a dispersion of finely held particles in a
stream which do not necessarily dissolve in each other,
but are held in suspension.
Entrainment
Mist, fog or droplets of a liquid which are usually
considered to be a contaminate when encountered in
the filtration industry.
Feed
Liquid to be processed containing one or more liquid
phases, such as an emulsion, and/or suspended solids,
and/or insoluble solids.
Felt
A nonwoven sheet of fibers, made by a combination of
mechanical and chemical actions, including pressure,
moisture and heat.
Fiber
A flexible material with two relatively small dimensions
and one long dimension.
Fiber migration
Undesirable movement of filter material from the media
into the feed stream.
Filter
A term generally applied to a device used to remove
solid contaminants from a liquid or gas, or to separate
one liquid from another liquid or gas. A filter, as
referred to in the filtration industry, is a device which
removes contaminants .
Filtration efficiency
Expressed as a percent of contaminant introduced to the
system. It is the ability of a filter to remove specified contaminants
at a given contaminant concentration under
specified test conditions.
Filter element life
The span of operation from clean unit to a predetermined
pressure drop build up, usually measured in
elapsed time.
Filter medium
The porous material mounted on a plate or frame which
separates the solids from the liquids in filtering. Also
referred to as filter cloth, filter plate or septum. The
material that performs the actual process of filtration.
Filtrate
Filtered fluid which flows out of a filter.
Filtration rating
The diameter of the largest hard spherical particle that
will pass through a filter under specified test conditions.
This is an indication of the largest opening in the
filter medium.
Flow characteristics
The nature of fluid movement as being either turbulent,
laminar, constant or of a variable rate, to various degrees.
 
 
Flow rate
The rate at which a product is passed through a vessel or
system, generally expressed as gallons per minute, cubic
feet per minute, per hour, per day, etc.
Fluid
A liquid or gas which can be filtered by passing through
a filter.
Gage pressure
All pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, as read on
a pressure gage.
Gel
A semi-solid that is susceptible to pressure deformation.
Gels have the habit of sticking to other surfaces.
Glazed finish
A finishing process that produces a smooth, highly
polished surface using extreme temperature. Eliminates
filter fiber migration.
Gradient density
A media of different densities, with one media packed
around the center tube and a media of less density
around the outside. Both medias are tapered at opposite
ends, which allows high flow through the less dense
media, and tighter filtration through the dense media.
Housing
A container for a filter element(s). Also known as a vessel.
Hydraulics
The study of fluids at rest or in motion.
Hydrophilic
Having a strong affinity for or the ability to absorb water.&l

 

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